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當人們習慣了居家辦公,辦公樓開發商該怎么辦

當人們習慣了居家辦公,辦公樓開發商該怎么辦

Andrew Marquardt 2021年02月25日
開發商表示,要想讓大部分美國人相信重回辦公室是安全的,仍然有很長的路要走。

近一年前,各地因為新冠疫情而開始執行封鎖措施。隨后,數以百萬計的美國人被迫放棄通勤,帶著辦公用品開始居家辦公。

之后的情況一直沒有太大變化。皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)在去年12月的一項調查發現,在大部分工作職責可以在家完成的上班族當中,有71%“全部或大部分時間”依舊在居家辦公。另外,有54%表示希望在疫情結束之后繼續居家辦公。

這給美國各地的建筑開發商帶來了一個前所未有的挑戰:樓層多達兩位數并且配有電梯的密閉塔樓,要如何重新吸引上班族?如何讓數以百萬計已經習慣了穿著睡衣辦公的美國人相信,現在是時候恢復通勤,坐地鐵回到辦公室去辦公呢?

位于紐約市的哥倫比亞地產信托公司(Columbia Property Trust)的租賃與資產管理業務高級副總裁保羅?泰迪表示:“因為疫情,對建筑設施的許多升級改造從疫情之前的錦上添花,現在變成了必不可少的措施?!?/p>

人們希望減少接觸

許多開發商都變得極其關注細節。畢竟,一想到辦公室里一天內聚集的細菌數量,恐怕任何人都會下定決心,永遠居家辦公。

更糟糕的是,讓人們擔憂的不止是坐在旁邊的同事從體內排出的那些常見的污物。美國疾病與預防控制中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)表示,“接觸過帶有病毒的表面或物品后,再觸摸口、鼻、眼等,就可能感染新冠病毒?!?/p>

在人員密集的室內辦公樓內,經常接觸門把手、照明開關、衛生間洗手盆或馬桶的上班族們,自然會為此感到憂心忡忡。

因此,許多新建筑將很快為員工提供從街道到辦公桌完全無接觸的體驗,例如紐約市的Zero Irving。

由RAL Companies & Affiliates公司開發的Zero Irving(下圖)定于今年晚些時候開業。這棟建筑配備了最先進的無接觸技術,樓內租戶能夠使用手機應用程序進入大樓。這款應用程序可以打開大樓的電動旋轉門,使租戶通過自動安全閘機,并通過配有目的層調度系統的電梯前往所在樓層,在這個過程中不需要接觸任何物品。

?
Zero Irving配備了最先進的無接觸技術,樓內租戶能夠使用手機應用程序進入大樓。圖片來源:Courtesy of RAL Reps

RAL Companies的總裁斯賓塞?萊文說:“這棟建筑為訪客提供了一種完全無接觸的體驗。這不僅有益于保證公共健康,還能夠提高建筑的運行效率?!?/p>

無接觸體驗不止局限于入口。在哥倫比亞地產信托(Columbia Property Trust)新開發的辦公樓百老匯799號(799 Broadway),除了配備目的層調度電梯以外,所有照明設施以及衛生間的門、洗手槽和馬桶均采用了完全無接觸設計。

泰迪稱:“我們致力于打造最健康、最安全的一流辦公環境,讓人們確信他們重回辦公室是安全的?!?/p>

重視空氣質量

由于新冠病毒容易通過空氣傳播,因此利用新型通風和暖通空調系統改善建筑內的空氣質量,是許多新建筑和現有建筑再開發的另外一個重點關注對象。

哥倫比亞地產信托的建筑與開發事務高級副總裁史蒂夫?特拉普指出:“為了應對疫情,我們增加了MERV 13級空氣過濾器和雙極電離技術,提高了所有建筑的室內空氣質量?!?/p>

美國采暖、制冷與空調工程師學會(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers)對于減少空氣傳播疾病的核心建議是,使用“空氣過濾器和空氣凈化器組合,使通過暖通空調系統再循環的空氣質量達到MERV 13級或更高級別?!?/p>

Zero Irving項目每層的暖通空調系統相互獨立,可以保證本樓層的空氣不會傳播到其他樓層。萊文表示,Zero Irving的租戶能夠自行升級通風系統,比如安裝高級MERV空氣過濾器或雙極電離系統。

萊文說:“我們在每一層還新建了空氣質量監測站,用于實時監測建筑內所有公共空間的空氣質量?!?/p>

許多人認為,在后疫情時代,監測公共空間的室內空氣質量可能會變成一項常規操作。

位于芝加哥的大型房地產開發商Sterling Bay公司的傳媒經理朱莉?古蒂表示:“我們認為未來在商業地產中會隨時隨地顯示室內空氣質量監測結果,就像我們今天查看天氣預報一樣平常?!?/p>

Sterling Bay近期在項目組合層面通過了WELL健康-安全評價,成為首家獲得國際WELL建筑研究院認證(International WELL Building Institute)的芝加哥業主。為了應對疫情而新開發的WELL評價系統,旨在評估商業地產降低病毒傳播風險和為上班族重回辦公室創造安全體驗的能力。

在每一層開辟露臺

辦公樓限制新冠病毒傳播的另外一種做法是開辟室外空間。新冠病毒在室外的可傳播性更低,而且開發商表示,增加戶外社區空間是為租戶打造良好的辦公室體驗和注重租戶健康的重要一環。

特拉普稱,百老匯799號的室外空間是建筑再開發規劃的重要組成部分,其中包括“在幾乎每一層都配備露臺”。

泰迪說:“進入建筑內部,首先映入眼簾的就是服務臺后方的一處戶外花園?;▓@提供了通往室外的通道,并創造了的大量自然光,我們真正將其融入到[建筑當中]?!?/p>

?
布魯克林威洛比大街141號效果圖??臻g設計使通風系統中的戶外空氣達到10%,比紐約市的戶外空氣規范提高了77%。圖片來源:Courtesy of Savanna

在布魯克林威洛比大街141號(141 Willoughby Ave)(上圖),增加戶外空氣流通是建筑開發規劃的關鍵。該項目由綜合房地產投資管理公司Savanna負責開發,其空間設計使通風系統中的戶外空氣達到10%,比紐約市的戶外空氣規范提高了77%。

Savanna的總經理庫珀?克雷默稱:“除了增加建筑內的戶外空氣流通,租戶還可以自行選擇通過每層單獨提供的專用百葉窗系統,將戶外空氣流量進一步提高40%以上?!?/p>

新常態

開發商表示,要想讓大部分美國人相信重回辦公室是安全的,仍然有很長的路要走,而且建筑升級改造需要成本,這些他們都清楚。

目前,Zero Irving每平方英尺的租金報價為較低的三位數,這在周圍出租的辦公樓中屬于較高水平。這棟辦公樓將在今年晚些時候開業,2至7層將是一家數字技能培訓中心和技術孵化器機構,目前正在向類似的科技類公司推銷第8至21層。

辦公樓的升級改造或許會增加租戶的成本,但開發商認為,這是在后疫情時代重視公共健康的美國人所要付出的經商代價。

泰迪指出:“真正能夠引起人們共鳴的是,辦公樓的設計思路真正考慮到了使用辦公樓的每一位上班族的體驗?!?/p>

Savanna的開發總監兼首席可持續發展官彼得?羅森塔爾說:“未來肯定會出現一種新常態。疫情加快了這些技術的應用速度。將來如果有一棟新建筑的設計和施工未包含此類創新技術,那我將會感到非常意外?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:劉進龍

審校:汪皓

近一年前,各地因為新冠疫情而開始執行封鎖措施。隨后,數以百萬計的美國人被迫放棄通勤,帶著辦公用品開始居家辦公。

之后的情況一直沒有太大變化。皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)在去年12月的一項調查發現,在大部分工作職責可以在家完成的上班族當中,有71%“全部或大部分時間”依舊在居家辦公。另外,有54%表示希望在疫情結束之后繼續居家辦公。

這給美國各地的建筑開發商帶來了一個前所未有的挑戰:樓層多達兩位數并且配有電梯的密閉塔樓,要如何重新吸引上班族?如何讓數以百萬計已經習慣了穿著睡衣辦公的美國人相信,現在是時候恢復通勤,坐地鐵回到辦公室去辦公呢?

位于紐約市的哥倫比亞地產信托公司(Columbia Property Trust)的租賃與資產管理業務高級副總裁保羅?泰迪表示:“因為疫情,對建筑設施的許多升級改造從疫情之前的錦上添花,現在變成了必不可少的措施?!?/p>

人們希望減少接觸

許多開發商都變得極其關注細節。畢竟,一想到辦公室里一天內聚集的細菌數量,恐怕任何人都會下定決心,永遠居家辦公。

更糟糕的是,讓人們擔憂的不止是坐在旁邊的同事從體內排出的那些常見的污物。美國疾病與預防控制中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)表示,“接觸過帶有病毒的表面或物品后,再觸摸口、鼻、眼等,就可能感染新冠病毒?!?/p>

在人員密集的室內辦公樓內,經常接觸門把手、照明開關、衛生間洗手盆或馬桶的上班族們,自然會為此感到憂心忡忡。

因此,許多新建筑將很快為員工提供從街道到辦公桌完全無接觸的體驗,例如紐約市的Zero Irving。

由RAL Companies & Affiliates公司開發的Zero Irving(下圖)定于今年晚些時候開業。這棟建筑配備了最先進的無接觸技術,樓內租戶能夠使用手機應用程序進入大樓。這款應用程序可以打開大樓的電動旋轉門,使租戶通過自動安全閘機,并通過配有目的層調度系統的電梯前往所在樓層,在這個過程中不需要接觸任何物品。

RAL Companies的總裁斯賓塞?萊文說:“這棟建筑為訪客提供了一種完全無接觸的體驗。這不僅有益于保證公共健康,還能夠提高建筑的運行效率?!?/p>

無接觸體驗不止局限于入口。在哥倫比亞地產信托(Columbia Property Trust)新開發的辦公樓百老匯799號(799 Broadway),除了配備目的層調度電梯以外,所有照明設施以及衛生間的門、洗手槽和馬桶均采用了完全無接觸設計。

泰迪稱:“我們致力于打造最健康、最安全的一流辦公環境,讓人們確信他們重回辦公室是安全的?!?/p>

重視空氣質量

由于新冠病毒容易通過空氣傳播,因此利用新型通風和暖通空調系統改善建筑內的空氣質量,是許多新建筑和現有建筑再開發的另外一個重點關注對象。

哥倫比亞地產信托的建筑與開發事務高級副總裁史蒂夫?特拉普指出:“為了應對疫情,我們增加了MERV 13級空氣過濾器和雙極電離技術,提高了所有建筑的室內空氣質量?!?/p>

美國采暖、制冷與空調工程師學會(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers)對于減少空氣傳播疾病的核心建議是,使用“空氣過濾器和空氣凈化器組合,使通過暖通空調系統再循環的空氣質量達到MERV 13級或更高級別?!?/p>

Zero Irving項目每層的暖通空調系統相互獨立,可以保證本樓層的空氣不會傳播到其他樓層。萊文表示,Zero Irving的租戶能夠自行升級通風系統,比如安裝高級MERV空氣過濾器或雙極電離系統。

萊文說:“我們在每一層還新建了空氣質量監測站,用于實時監測建筑內所有公共空間的空氣質量?!?/p>

許多人認為,在后疫情時代,監測公共空間的室內空氣質量可能會變成一項常規操作。

位于芝加哥的大型房地產開發商Sterling Bay公司的傳媒經理朱莉?古蒂表示:“我們認為未來在商業地產中會隨時隨地顯示室內空氣質量監測結果,就像我們今天查看天氣預報一樣平常?!?/p>

Sterling Bay近期在項目組合層面通過了WELL健康-安全評價,成為首家獲得國際WELL建筑研究院認證(International WELL Building Institute)的芝加哥業主。為了應對疫情而新開發的WELL評價系統,旨在評估商業地產降低病毒傳播風險和為上班族重回辦公室創造安全體驗的能力。

在每一層開辟露臺

辦公樓限制新冠病毒傳播的另外一種做法是開辟室外空間。新冠病毒在室外的可傳播性更低,而且開發商表示,增加戶外社區空間是為租戶打造良好的辦公室體驗和注重租戶健康的重要一環。

特拉普稱,百老匯799號的室外空間是建筑再開發規劃的重要組成部分,其中包括“在幾乎每一層都配備露臺”。

泰迪說:“進入建筑內部,首先映入眼簾的就是服務臺后方的一處戶外花園?;▓@提供了通往室外的通道,并創造了的大量自然光,我們真正將其融入到[建筑當中]?!?/p>

在布魯克林威洛比大街141號(141 Willoughby Ave)(上圖),增加戶外空氣流通是建筑開發規劃的關鍵。該項目由綜合房地產投資管理公司Savanna負責開發,其空間設計使通風系統中的戶外空氣達到10%,比紐約市的戶外空氣規范提高了77%。

Savanna的總經理庫珀?克雷默稱:“除了增加建筑內的戶外空氣流通,租戶還可以自行選擇通過每層單獨提供的專用百葉窗系統,將戶外空氣流量進一步提高40%以上?!?/p>

新常態

開發商表示,要想讓大部分美國人相信重回辦公室是安全的,仍然有很長的路要走,而且建筑升級改造需要成本,這些他們都清楚。

目前,Zero Irving每平方英尺的租金報價為較低的三位數,這在周圍出租的辦公樓中屬于較高水平。這棟辦公樓將在今年晚些時候開業,2至7層將是一家數字技能培訓中心和技術孵化器機構,目前正在向類似的科技類公司推銷第8至21層。

辦公樓的升級改造或許會增加租戶的成本,但開發商認為,這是在后疫情時代重視公共健康的美國人所要付出的經商代價。

泰迪指出:“真正能夠引起人們共鳴的是,辦公樓的設計思路真正考慮到了使用辦公樓的每一位上班族的體驗?!?/p>

Savanna的開發總監兼首席可持續發展官彼得?羅森塔爾說:“未來肯定會出現一種新常態。疫情加快了這些技術的應用速度。將來如果有一棟新建筑的設計和施工未包含此類創新技術,那我將會感到非常意外?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:劉進龍

審校:汪皓

When coronavirus-induced lockdowns first began nearly a year ago, millions of Americans were forced to abandon their morning commutes, pack up their offices, and begin working from home.

Not much has changed since. A December study from Pew Research Center found that 71% of workers who reported that their job responsibilities can mainly be done from home were still working from home “all or most of the time.” And of that same group, 54% reported that they would want to continue working from home even after the pandemic ends, according to the study.

For building developers across the country, this posed a distinct challenge: How do you make a sealed, double-digit tower serviced by elevators attractive to workers again? How do you convince millions of Americans so used to working from their pajamas that it’s time to get back on that morning subway and return to the office?

“A lot of these improvements have gone from being nice to have before the pandemic, to things our buildings now must have because of the pandemic,” said Paul Teti, senior vice president of leasing and asset management at Columbia Property Trust in New York City.

Things nobody ever wants to touch again

Many developers are starting small—microscopically small. After all, the legions of germs that could conceivably pile up during a given day in the office are enough to keep anyone set on working from home forever.

To make matters worse, it’s no longer just the average, everyday filth emanating from the guy at the next cubicle down that’s cause for concern. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes.”

At heavily populated indoor office buildings, this presents a legitimate concern to workers frequently touching things like door handles, light switches, and bathroom sinks or toilets.

This is why many new buildings, like Zero Irving in New York City, will soon feature entirely touchless experiences for employees, from the street to their desk.

Developed by RAL Companies & Affiliates, Zero Irving (pictured below) is set to open later this year. The building is equipped with state-of-the-art touchless technology that will allow tenants to enter the building using an app on their phones. The app will open the building’s electric revolving doors, get tenants through security turnstiles automatically, and arrive at their floor through elevators equipped with destination dispatch—all without touching a thing.

“It’s a completely touchless experience for visitors to the building,” said Spencer Levine, president of RAL Companies. “Not only is this great for public health, but it also aids in the efficiency of how the building operates.”

And the touchless experience won’t just be limited to entrances. At 799 Broadway, a new office building developed by Columbia Property Trust (CXP), all lighting fixtures and bathroom doors, sinks, and toilets will be entirely touchless, on top of the destination dispatch elevators.

“We're trying to create the best, healthiest, and safest environment to give people the confidence to know that when they come back to the office, it’ll be safe,” Teti said.

An emphasis on air quality

Because the coronavirus is easily transmitted through the air, improving the quality of a building’s air through new ventilation and HVAC systems is another major area of redevelopment in many new and existing buildings.

“In response to the pandemic, we enhanced our indoor air quality at all of our buildings by adding MERV 13 filters and a technology called bipolar ionization,” said Steve Trapp, senior vice president of construction and development at Columbia Property Trust.

According to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), using “combinations of filters and air cleaners that achieve MERV 13 or better levels of performance for air recirculated by HVAC systems” is a core recommendation for reducing exposure to airborne infectious diseases.

At Zero Irving, HVAC systems are isolated by floor, ensuring that air isn’t circulating with that of other floors. Tenants at Zero Irving also have the ability to upgrade their air ventilation systems themselves, providing them the option to install high-grade MERV filters or bipolar ionization systems, according to Levine.

“We also have new air quality monitoring stations on every floor,” Levine said. “This allows for real-time monitoring of the indoor air quality in all of the building’s common spaces.”

Many believe that in a post-COVID world, monitoring indoor air quality in public spaces may become commonplace.

“We feel like indoor air quality measurements are the types of measurements that will be displayed everywhere in commercial property going forward, just the same way we look at the weather,” said Julie Goudie, communications manager at Sterling Bay, a major developer in Chicago.

Sterling Bay recently became the first property owner in Chicago to be certified by the International WELL Building Institute (IWBI) as having achieved the WELL Health-Safety Rating at a portfolio level. The new WELL rating system, developed in response to the pandemic, assesses the ability of a commercial property in reducing the risk of virus transmission and preparing for a safe return-to-office experience.

Terraces on every floor

Implementing outdoor spaces is another key way to limit the spread of the coronavirus in office buildings. The virus is far less transmittable outside, and developers say the addition of outdoor community spaces is a key component of the new focus on wellness in a tenant’s office experience.

At 799 Broadway, outdoor spaces were a key component of the building’s redevelopment plans, which include “terraces on nearly every floor,” according to Trapp.

“From the moment you enter the building, you are greeted with an outdoor garden immediately behind our lobby desk,” said Teti. “Between access to the outdoors and a lot of natural light, it’s something we’ve truly integrated [into the building].”

At 141 Willoughby Ave in Brooklyn (pictured above), increasing the amount of outdoor air is a key aspect of the building’s development plans. Developed by Savanna, an integrated real estate investment managing firm, 141 Willoughby was designed to include 10% outdoor air in its ventilation, a 77% increase of the outdoor air code in New York City.

“In addition to the increased level of outside air throughout the building, tenants will be able to further increase their outside air for a total of 40%+ outside air at their option through dedicated louver systems provided to each tenant floor,” said Cooper Kramer, Managing Director at Savanna.

The new normal

Developers say they know they have a long way to go in convincing the majority of Americans that returning to the office will be a safe experience—and improvements come at a cost.

Asking rents at Zero Irving are currently in the low triple digits per square foot, placing it at the higher end when compared to other available office spaces in the area. When it opens later this year, the building’s second through seventh floors will be occupied by a digital skills training center and tech accelerator, while floors eight through 21 are currently being pitched to like-minded tech-focused companies.

While these improvements may cost tenants more, developers say it’s the price of doing business in a post-COVID world in which Americans are prioritizing public health.

“What's really resonating with people,” Teti said, “is the approach to design that suggests that you're really thinking about every employee's experience as they inhabit the building.”

“There’s definitely a new normal,” said Peter Rosenthal, director of development and chief sustainability officer at Savanna. “The pandemic has quickened the pace of the adoption of these technologies. Moving forward, as new buildings are getting designed and built, I’d be very surprised if any of the new innovations were not included.”

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